What the data is telling us
Here are some visualizations of our data. Keep in mind that the data covers only a portion of rail projects in each city/country and in many instances, is not representative of all the lines constructed in that city/country.
You can zoom in/out and hover over markers to see more detail.
1. Cost/km to Length of line
In this chart, each circle represents a project, and its color gradient represents the percentage that is tunneled.
We expect longer lines to cost less per km which is apparent in the visualization.
New York’s East Side Access is a clear outlier.
2. Cost/km to Length of line (colors represent regions)
This chart is similar to the one above: each color represents a region, which helps see how costs vary world region.
European projects, for instance, tend to be shorter and less expensive. Northern American projects, on the other hand, are short and generally more expensive than European projects. East Asian projects tend to be less expensive independent of their length.
3. Cost/km, projects grouped for each country, in order of the cost based on the cheapest line
Here, we see the range of costs within each country.
Even though China has the cheapest project, its most expensive, Shanghai Line 1, is similar in cost/km to some of the most expensive countries in the database, those of Singapore and Qatar.
4. Average Cost/km per Country
Here are all countries ordered by costs, based on the weighted average cost of the projects in on our database. The colors represent the weighted average of percentage of tunnel for the projects in each country, and the number of projects our database covers per country can be seen hovering over each bar.
We see that Bahrain’s costs are on the lower end based on the two projects we have in our database, but they do not have tunnels. The UAE and Malaysia have the highest costs among countries that do not build a lot of tunnels.
5. Average Cost/km per Country and GDP (2017 adjusted for PPP)
In this chart, each country is represented with a circle, and the bigger the circle, the greater the number of projects in our database. Colors represent regions.
We use the World Bank’s numbers for GDP adjusted for PPP: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.PCAP.PP.CD
We see that there isn’t an obvious correlation between the GDP and costs. The US has the highest costs with one of the highest GDPs, but countries like Norway and Switzerland have higher GDPs and have much lower costs. We also see countries with low GDPs building projects for relatively high costs: Egypt, Bangladesh, Vietnam and Philippines.
6. Average Cost/km per Country and Duration of Construction per km
Here we compare how long it takes to build one km of rail, on average, for each country against the costs/km. The US is expensive and slow, Germany is slow but relatively cheap. Qatar is expensive but fast. China and India, on average, are cheap and fast. Chinese projects, however, are much more likely to be tunneled than India’s.
7. The timeline of rail construction for countries
Here we see how much and for how long each country in our database has been building rail rapid transit projects. The start and end years of each project is marked with a circle on countries’ lines. Hover over the points to see more data.
The continuation of a line does not mean the country has ongoing rail construction throughout the years.
8. A Heat map of costs per country in years
This chart shows how costs per country have changed over time. Colors indicate the square root of the Cost/km in $ M.
Each square represents the start of one or more projects in that country, and if there are more than one, the cost is the weighted average of the projects that started that year.