Istanbul Case Appendices

Appendix A: Operation and Ridership

Istanbul metros run between 6am and 12pm during weekdays, with headways ranging between 5-10 minutes at peak hours. Since 2019, lines M1A, M1B, M2, M4, M5 and M6 are operated 24 hours a day on weekends and state holidays, with 20-minute frequencies and double fares.

Below are monthly ridership numbers of active lines in Istanbul, in millions, for the months of February between 2016 and 2020. February was selected as the last month before Covid-19 lockdowns impacted ridership. The month of October shows the highest ridership with 20% more riders per line on average than February; and August the lowest, going as low as 20% below February numbers on average for these five years.

Table A-1 Monthly ridership in millions of passengers

February 2016February 2017February 2018February 2019February 2020
*M5 started service in December 2017. M7 line started service in October, 2020 and the latest ridership data shows 1.7M as the highest number of passengers in the month of November, 2020. 

Table A-2 Yearly ridership data of Istanbul lines. M5 started service in December 2017


Appendix B: TBM Staff Wages

Istanbul wages on this and the following tables are for January 2021, a 37% raise was applied to all wages due to rapid inflation later in the year. Old wages are used as they are compatible with the latest PPP of 2020, which is not available for 2021 as of June 2021.

Table B-1 Istanbul monthly wages of workers in a 2 TBM rail construction

Net Monthly Wages for each person working one 12-hour-shift a day starting at 7.30 am or pm
1 worker’s wage
(exr.:7.4, not PPP adjusted)
# personnel
2 TBMs
# personnel
2 TBMs cost
(PPP= 3.3)
TBM Tunnel Chief200011$6600
Shift Engineer*$810-$101024$10,070-$13,330
TBM Operator107524$14,190
Erector Operator66324$8,745
Segment Crane Operator61324$8,085
Injection (Grout) Master61324$8,085
Injection (Grout) Worker56324$7,425
Bentonite Master56324$7,425
Conveyor Belt Master56348$14,850
Segment Lining Installation Master56348$14,850
Rail-Walkway Installer56348$14,850
Pipe + Plumbing Pump Master56348$14,850
Master Electrician67524$8,910
TBM Repair and Hydraulics Master88824$11,715
Disk Installer, Maintenance and Greaser61324$8,085
* Min and max. wages based on level of experience 
1 TBM2 TBMs2 TBMs cost 
(PPP= 3.3)
Tbm Crew Size4181
Tbm Crew Total Net Monthly Wage$175,890
Tbm Crew Total Monthly Costs (wages *1.4: includes insurance, accommodation, food) $246,246

Table B-2 Istanbul monthly wages of workers in a 2 TBM rail construction

TBM SURFACE SITE CREW1 worker’s wage (exr.:7.4)2 TBMs Day Shift, # personnel2 TBMs Night Shift, # personnel2 TBMs cost (exr:7.4, PPP= 3.3)
Electric Crew
Electrical Engineer$1,2001X$3,960
PLC Operator$9501X$3,135
Electrical Foreman$1,0501X$3,465
Electrician Master$67511$4,455
Outer Site Electrician$59032$9,735
Survey Crew
Topographical Engineer*$540-$6751X$1,780-$2,230
Topographical Technician*$470-$81011$3,120-5,350
Equipment Operator$55011$3,630
Workshop Crew
Machine Supply Chief$1,2001X$3,960
Mechanical Engineer$80011$5,280
General Foreman*$675-$1,0701X$2,230-$3,530
Installation Foreman$1,1001X$3,630
Mechanical and Hydraulic Journeyman$90011$5,940
Workshop Mechanical Assistant$60022$7,920
Auto Electrician$6001X$1,980
MSV Operator$62254$18,480
Belt Supervisor (Site+TBM)*$510-$8101X$1,700-$2,675
Belt Staff (Site)$54233$10,725
Outside Site Plumbing + Chiller*$405-$56522$5,350-7,455
Surface Site
Outside Site Boss$80011$5,280
Shaft Head Segment Transfer and TBM Logistics$45055$14,850
Shaft Tail Segment Transfer and TBM Logistics$44788$2,3595
Portal Crane Operator$50022$6,600
Grout Station Operator$57511$3,795
Grout Station Assistant$47511$3,135
Reporting Staff$6001x$1,980
* Min and max. wages based on level of experience 
2 TBMs Day Shift2 TBMs Night Shift2 TBMs (PPP)
Surface Site Crew Size5438
Tbm Surface Site Crew Net Monthly Wage For 2 Tbms$17,6220
Tbm Surface Site Crew Total Monthly Costs$24,6708
(wages *1.4: includes insurance, accommodation, food)

Table B-3 New York weekly wages of workers in a 2 TBM rail construction.

1 Worker’s Total Wages and Benefits1 TBM
1 Shift Personnel
Union1 TBM Shifts/ Day1 TBM
Total Personnel/Day
1 TBM Staff
Total Weekly Fees
TBM Staff
General Foremanx1SH (local 147)33x
Walking Bossx1SH (local 147)33x
Journeymenx6SH (local 147)318x
Miner- Mole Nipperx133x
Miner- Brakemanx236x
Electriciansx2SH (local 147)36x
OE- TBMx133x
OE- Locomotivesx236x
OE- TBM Maint Engineerx133x
OE- Main Manx133x
Laborersx2SH (local 147)36x
TBM Crew Total20360$221,159.52
Support Gang
Labor Foremanx1Local 73133x
Laborersx2Local 73136x
Miner- Superintendentx1SH (local 147)33x
Miner Foremanx1SH (local 147)33x
Miner Change Housex1SH (local 147)33x
Miner Safetyx1SH (local 147)33x
Miner Top Bellmanx1SH (local 147)33x
Miner Top Laborerx1SH (local 147)33x
Miner Top Nipperx1SH (local 147)33x
Miner Bottom Bellmanx1SH (local 147)33x
Miner Bottom Laborerx1SH (local 147)33x
Miner Bottom Dumpmanx2SH (local 147)36x
Miner Bullgang Foremanx1SH (local 147)33x
Miner Bullgang Laborersx2SH (local 147)36x
OE- Crawler Cranex1OE- Local 1433x
Oiler- Crawler Cranex1OE- Local 1533x
OE- Loaderx1OE- Local 1433x
OE- Compressorx1OE- Local 1533x
OE- Muck Conveyorx1OE- Local 1533x
OE- Master Mechanicx1OE- Local 1433x
OE- Maintenance Foremanx1OE- Local 1533x
Surveyorx1SH (local 147)33x
Teamstersx1local 28233x
Support Gang Total2678$269,892.51$
Management Staff80% of management costs are for the TBM work
Safety personnelx133x
Field Engineerx166x
Office Engineerx166x
Project Managerx133x
Cost Engineerx111x
Time Keeper / secratery / Front deskx133x
Construction Manager Personnelx15115x
Management Total 2244$172,307.69$
All Staff Total 182$593,359.72$

Appendix C: Utility Replacement

Similarly with the case in New York, underground utility systems in Istanbul are not well documented, and oftentimes require a new utility relocation plan once the excavations reveal the underlying systems. One engineer recalled the plans versus the actual locations of utilities varying as much as 15 meters in the city (Personal Interview TR M 2021). However, the municipality is known to assist contractors with the acquisition of permits from the utility companies during rapid-rail construction. An interviewee working for the former municipal government claimed that the municipality was quick to resolve utility relocation problems, probably faster than the Ministry of Transit who also builds lines in the city, since they have a lot more experience (Personal Interview TR F 2020). He referred to a high voltage line of TEIAS (Turkish Electricity Transmission Corporation) that was discovered in the right of way of M7 during excavations, for which the agency and the contractor got in touch with TEIAS and designed a solution within days. This is a good example of the Turkish contractors and the agency cooperating well.
Some utility companies in Istanbul are private and some are run by public enterprises. According to one senior level engineer with years of experience in rail construction, dealing with one is not easier than the other. He also mentioned that the previous municipality was better at easing the process of utility relocations; whereas the new one doesn’t cut corners, but is especially keen on going through with the legal approval processes, in turn slowing down the construction. A likely reason for this could be that the current government being from the opposition party, is more likely to get audited by the central government, hence is generally more meticulous in bureaucratic procedures.
Utility plans are commonly inaccurate, nevertheless, there has been a lot of improvement on this front in the recent years. The government owned gas company IGDAS, currently in the process of being privatized, works with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and provides largely accurate plans for areas that have been built within the last ten years. Water administration has also improved, but owns older infrastructure that is not well documented. Electricity and telecommunication are the hardest to work with, and cause a lot of delays as generally, their documentation is not managed well (Personal Interview TR F 2020).

Appendix D: EIS Process in Turkey

If a project falls within the category of projects that are subject to EIA or, is evaluated and granted an “EIA required” status, the owner submits an EIA application to the Ministry of Environment. The Ministry examines the file and creates a committee to evaluate the application, and forwards the file to the local governorship (the city), which announces the project along with public participation notices on the official online EIA portal, “e-ÇED.” The public can submit opinions, questions and suggestions about the project to the city within 10 days. The owner submits a project promotion file to the committee and the committee meets, attended by a ministry official. The clerical duties are handled by the ministry. The ministry may bring in experts from academic and research institutions, trade organizations and unions, NGOs or other organizations to the committee.
Before the first meeting of the committee, a public participation meeting is organized in which the public is informed, and their opinions, questions and suggestions are reported to the committee. The committee meets, and the owner presents the project along with the public engagement meeting report. The committee decides on a scope and format for the EIA Report. The project owner has one year to prepare and submit the EIA Report to the ministry, but can request a one-time extension of 6 months.
Upon submission of the EIA Report to the ministry, a formal auditing is carried out and if the submission is approved, the committee evaluation starts. The report is also made available to the public, with announcements. The committee meets for evaluation and issues a decision within 10 days following the meeting, also taking into account any public input. The committee may request material, or visit project sites to make a decision and for a maximum of two times, they can request revisions. The report is finalized and is submitted to the ministry by the project owner. The report is made available to the public and the ministry makes a final decision on the report taking into consideration any new public input. Finally, the ministry issues an EIA Negative or EIA Positive decision. The decision is valid for 7 years, within which the project needs to commence, otherwise the process should be repeated.
The deadlines specified for each step of the process have been revised through amendments to the EIA by-law since it was put into force in 1993. Through 7 revisions in 1997, 2002, 2003, 2008, 2013 and 2014, the due dates were expedited, so that each process takes between a maximum of 3 to 10 business days (Bilgin 2015). The EIA preparation deadline for the owner is limited to one year and can be extended by six months.